Vitreous tiles are dust pressed tiles with water absorbtion
levels below 3%. Also known as porcelain, fully vitrified, and impervious. These are often specified for exterior applications.
Semi-vitreous tiles are those with water absorbtion levels over 3%, but less than 6%
Non-vitreous tile are
those with water absorbtion levels over 6%
Extruded tiles are those where the still formable raw material is forced
thru a mold and cut into shape before being fired.
Dust pressed tiles are those where the raw materials are shaped
in molds under high pressure before firing.
Firing is a final process of tile manufacturing where they are heated
at a high temperature to harden the tile body/glaze.
Monocottura is a single-fired tile and glaze.
is short for Porcelain Enamel Institute which research, test, analyze ceramic materials for use in the United States. Typically,
they give tiles a 0 thru' 5 rating signifying the durability of the surface of the tile from wear with 5 being a commercial/industrial
Lippage is where the edge of a tile is higher than an adjacent tile in a finished tile floor.
Grout is what is used to fill the joints between tile.
The grout joint is the space that is left between tiles that is to be filled with grout. The grout joint
is usually anywhere between 1/16" up to 3/4" of an inch depending on several factors. The most popular joint sizes are 1/16"
to 3/16" on walls and 3/16" to 1/4" on floors.
Efflorescence is basically a whitish powder or residue that is appears on grout joints/unglazed
tiles that is caused by the re reaction of chemicals in mortar and moisture. It's a little more complicated
than this; but, hey, this is a basics course.
Rectified tile doesn't have that slight rounded edge that typical ceramic tile has. The edges have been
cut with a water jet. This keeps the sizing more exact and gives a square edge similar to marble/granite which will allow
you to place the tile with a smaller grout joint similar to marble/granite.